Quinoa phenological phases and their nutrition requirements

Crop cycle lasts approximately 180 days. Nutrient uptake increases intensively between 60 and 110 days after sowing. This period also coincides with the stage, at which biomass accumulation is most intensive. It is therefore evident that the period between 60 and 120 days after sowing is optimal and critical for abundant nutrients availability, because this is the stage that sustains the final yield.

Nitrogen N-NUE (nutrient use efficiency) can range from 11‐15 to 22 kg/ha of yield per 1 kg of Nitrogen, while phosphorus P-NUE varies between 30 and 43 kg kg/ha of yield per 1 kg of Phosphorus.

Normal commercial yields for quinoa under Andes conditions are 1-2 MT/ha (=100-200 g/m2). Also, in Macedonia, South-Eastern Europe, seed yield of 1,72 MT/ha was obtained under rainfed conditions, without fertilization. 1,5-2,5 MT/ha of grain are normal in Bolivia, and yields touching 3,5 MT/ha are achieved in Peru. But up to 5 MT/ha (0,5 kg/m2) have been harvested in Mexico, by hand harvesting and bio-intensive growing methods.