Artículos

Qualité de la canopée : le nitrate de potassium en application foliaire plus efficace qu’en application au sol en conditions salines

Deux expériences ont été conduites pour déterminer l’effet de l’application de KNO3 sur la tolérance de l’ivraie vivace (Lolium perenne L.) à la salinité. Des pots de 50 cm de diamètre ont été remplis d’un mélange de perlite et de sable (1/1), puis les pots de semis ont été placés sous une serre. Les traitements ont consisté à combiner deux dosages de NaCl (0 et 60 mM) à quatre dosages de KNO3 (0, 5, 10 et 15 mM). L’apport de nitrate de potassium a été effectué soit au sol soit en application foliaire. Les pots ont été disposés en un bloc aléatoire complet avec quatre réplications.

L’augmentation du dosage de KNO3 jusqu’à 5 et 10 mM a favorisé la croissance des feuilles pour NaCl0 et NaCl60, respectivement. Avec le traitement NaCl60, les plants fertilisés au KNO3 ont cependant affiché une réduction moindre de la surface foliaire et des poids frais et sec par rapport aux plants non traités au KNO3. Le traitement au KNO3 à 15 mM a significativement diminué le poids frais et la croissance des feuilles. Le pourcentage de survie des plants en conditions salines a été supérieur pour les traitements foliaires au KNO3 par rapport aux applications au sol (Figures 1 et 2).

Les résultats des expériences ont clairement indiqué l’effet bénéfique du nitrate de potassium sur la croissance, la concentration en minéraux nutritifs (K et N) et la teneur en chlorophylle des plantes cultivées en conditions salines. L’application foliaire de KNO3 a démontré sa plus grande efficacité par rapport à l’application au sol pour améliorer la croissance de l’ivraie vivace en conditions salines. L’explication possible est que l’apport de NaCl accompagné de KNO3 à l’ivraie vivace a augmenté le potentiel osmotique et la toxicité ionique, tandis que les effets néfastes de la salinité sur l’augmentation du potentiel osmotique devraient être inférieurs si du KNO3 est apporté en application foliaire.

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Figure 1. Effet de la salinité et de l’application foliaire de nitrate de potassium sur la qualité de la canopée, en pourcentage de survie des plants.

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Figure 2. Effet de la salinité et de l’application au sol de nitrate de potassium sur la qualité de la canopée, en pourcentage de survie des plants.

Autor

Tabatabaei, S. J. et F. Fakhrzad. 2008. Foliar and soil application of potassium nitrate affects the tolerance of salinity and canopy growth of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne var Boulevard). American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences, 3(3): 544-550

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