Artículos

Le nitrate de potassium : caractéristiques et avantages

Le nitrate de potassium est une source de potassium unique eu égard à sa qualité nutritive et sa contribution à la santé et au rendement des plantes. Le nitrate de potassium possède des propriétés chimiques et physiques appréciables, combinées à ses qualités en matière environnementale. Le potassium sans Cl et le contre-ion nitrate en font une source idéale de N et de K pour la nutrition optimale des plantes.

Sa polyvalence en fait le produit idéal pour de multiples méthodes d’application, moments et usages. Il est compatible avec la plupart des autres engrais et est facile à mélanger pour élaborer un programme de nutrition équilibré pour toute culture. Il est hautement soluble et rapidement disponible pour la plante, si bien qu’il peut être appliqué à des stades de croissance des cultures présentant des besoins critiques.

Sous forme liquide, il peut être appliqué par irrigation au goutte-à-goutte, par pulvérisation foliaire, par fertirrigation et en fumure de fond ou en bandes. Sous forme perlée, il peut être appliqué en bandes seul ou mélangé ; l’épandage, l’incorporation, au moment des plantations ou avant, et même la projection, sont d’autres méthodes d’application. 

La flexibilité offerte par le nitrate de potassium est perceptible s’agissant de couvrir les besoins des cultures en rangs, en plein champ, permanentes telles que des fruits et des fruits secs, les fruits rouges, en serre et en pépinière, toute l’année. 

Avantages des engrais au nitrate sur ceux à l’ammonium
Les nitrates sont la source d’azote privilégiée.

• Non volatil : à la différence de l’ammonium, le nitrate n’est pas volatil, donc il n’est pas nécessaire de l’incorporer dans le sol en cas d’application en fumure de fond ou en bandes, ce qui rend son application pratique.
• Mobile dans le sol : directement absorbé par la plante, il offre la plus haute efficacité.
• Les nitrates, de manière synergique, favorisent l’absorption des cations, tels que K, Ca et Mg, tandis que l’ammonium fait concurrence à l’absorption de ces cations.
• Pas d’acidification du sol si tout l’azote est appliqué sous forme de nitrate.
• La conversion des nitrates en acides aminés se produit dans la feuille. Ce processus est alimenté par l’énergie solaire, qui le rend efficient en énergie.

Les données ci-dessous, tirées d’un essai de recherche réalisé en coopération avec l’Université d’État du Colorado, illustrent la polyvalence du nitrate de potassium dans ses méthodes d’application, ainsi que son effet bénéfique sur le rendement et la qualité. 

Effet de l’application d’engrais au nitrate de potassium sur la constitution des tubercules de pomme de terre Canela Russet.

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Effet de l’application d’engrais au nitrate de potassium sur le rendement en tubercules de pomme de terre Canela Russet.

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Traitements

 SHAPE  * MERGEFORMAT

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Les traitements 1, 2 et 3 en bandes latérales ont été appliqués en 3 fois : le premier tiers à une hauteur de 10 cm après sortie de terre, le deuxième lors de la tubérisation, et le troisième à la fermeture des rangs. Les valeurs affectées de lettres différentes sont significativement différentes à un intervalle de confiance à 90 %.

*Tous les traitements ont contenu des quantités égales de nutriments.

Source : 
https://spudman.com/article/side-dressing-potatoes-with-potassium-nitrate-fertilizer-improve-tuber -performance/oly_enc_id=0139J3793801F9U fois

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