Artículos

À la découverte du nitrate de potassium dans la gestion des nutriments de la tomate

RENDEMENT SUPÉRIEUR ET MEILLEURE QUALITÉ

La fertigation et les applications foliaires de nitrate de potassium se sont avérées bénéfiques pour améliorer la taille des fruits, la matière sèche, la couleur et le goût.

DES PLANTES PLUS FORTES ET DES FRUITS DE MEILLEURE QUALITÉ

Il a été démontré que le KNO3 diminue l’incidence des maladies et améliore la résistance aux facteurs environnementaux tels que le gel et la sécheresse. La fertigation et les applications foliaires peuvent donner lieu à une meilleure intégrité des fruits.

ABSORPTION PLUS RAPIDE

L’azote nitrique et le potassium dans le KNO3 sont immédiatement disponibles par les racines avec la fertigation et par les feuilles avec l’application foliaire.

La fertilisation et les applications foliaires de nitrate de potassium se sont avérées très efficaces pour satisfaire les besoins en potassium de nombreuses cultures.

La combinaison de potassium et de nitrate s’est avérée bénéfique pour améliorer la taille des fruits, la matière sèche, la couleur, le goût et la résistance aux stress biotiques et abiotiques pour les agrumes et les tomates.  Une expérience avec des tomates a été réalisée afin d’observer l’effet de différentes sources de K (KNO3, KCI et K SO4) sur le rendement des tomates. Le nitrate de potassium était supérieur aux autres sources de K en ce qui concerne le rendement et le poids moyen. 

L’effet de diverses sources de K sur le rendement en matière sèche des tomates

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Source : Achilea, O. 1999. La qualité des agrumes et des tomates est améliorée par une nutrition K optimisée. Springer Netherlands - lmproved Crop Quality by Nutrient Management :19-22.

Le nitrate de potassium a surpassé les autres sources de K pour la transformation des tomates en termes de rendement et de qualité. 

En Hongrie, 92 kg ha-1 de K2O en application secondaire sous forme de nitrate de potassium (NOP) se sont avérés supérieurs au chlorure de potassium (MOP) et au sulfate de potassium (SOP) en termes de rendement total commercialisable (12,8 % par rapport au contrôle), de poids moyen des fruits (3,9 % par rapport au contrôle) et de teneur en matière sèche (26,1 % par rapport au contrôle). 

En Espagne, le nitrate de potassium a amélioré la performance des plantes en augmentant le rendement moyen des plantes, le brix et le poids moyen des fruits de respectivement 25 %, 5,13 % et 5,15 %. Le rendement total est passé de 59 à 70 t ha-1. 

En Italie, lorsque 70 % de cette dose a été appliquée sous forme de nitrate de potassium par fertigation, le traitement a généré des rendements plus élevés, une plus grande proportion de fruits de classe I et un poids moyen des fruits plus élevé. En Israël, le nitrate s’est avéré être la meilleure forme d’azote pour une concentration maximale de lycopène dans les fruits frais. 

L’effet de différentes sources de K sur le rendement total de la tomate en Hongrie

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Augmentation (%) du rendement total, du rendement total de la plante et du rendement total en lycopène (pour la couleur) par l’utilisation du nitrate de potassium dans la transformation de la tomate.

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*Les moyennes avec la même lettre indiquent qu’il n’y a pas de différences statistiquement significatives* 
Source : Achilea, O. et U. Kafkafi. 2002. Amélioration des performances de la tomate de transformation par une nutrition à base de nitrate de potassium. VIII lnternational Symposium on the Processing Tomato 613 : 81-87. 

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